Bigelow's phrase "the practical applications of science" points to the root of much of the current confusion as to the meaning of technology. In using this phrase to describe technology he effectively placed technology beneath the umbrella of science to such an extent that science and technology are now, as Rose described, seen by many as an "indivisible pair" with technology as the subservient and dependant partner. Thus, for much of the time the pair are wrapped together into a single conceptual package known simply as "science". This point is emphasised when surfing the Internet for technology-related teaching resources. A plethora of lesson plans exist at sites dedicated to science education. The problem is, though, that many of these lessons should properly be termed "technology" but are all too often referred to as "applied science".

One source of confusion is the undoubted relationship that exists between science and technology. Sparkes illustrated this relationship (fig 1) and pointed out that even though science and technology overlap in an area which might be referred to as "applied science", there are a number of important differences between the two (table 1), even though these differences might not be self-evident to an average member of the general public who, through neglect and through repeated use of the phrase "science and technology" has lost the distinction between "science" and between "technology". The two cannot be told apart. Which is hardly surprising given that, as Mayr put it:

" . . . practical usable criteria for making sharp neat distinctions between science and technology do not exist."

Further emphasising that the area of overlap between science and technology is very much a grey one when it comes to providing it with a succinct and accurate title, Barnett pointed out that:

"To identify technology as applied science is at best a half-truth"

Equally, Black and Harrison made a useful distinction between:

" . . . 'contrivance' technology exemplified by many gifted engineers in the last century who worked with no formal scientific understanding of their problems, and 'applied science' technology in which one increasingly needs to grasp the conceptual science even to understand the problem, let alone explore solutions "

They then went on to state that this distinction was wholly black and white:

"Neither is sufficient on its own; some problems require more of one approach, some more of the other."

The range of academic disciplines that fall within the social science classification includes anthropologists, archaeologists, psychologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, economists, and urban or regional planners. That's a wide range of expertise; it includes looking at cultures present and past, studying their behavior, their economies and the ground beneath them.

Many of these positions are primarily research oriented. According to the Department of Labor, over 40% of all social scientists exclusive of psychologists and urban planners work for the federal government. It's a good guess that another large group of them teach. The social sciences comprise a number of fascinating fields; but the number of professionals who have gotten a social science education and are able to utilize it in a commercial or business environment is limited.

Psychologists are an exception to that rule. Clinical psychologists must hold a doctorate and maintain strict licensure. However there are a number of career options for graduates form a bachelors or masters program in psychology. Human resource departments in medium and large businesses hire psychology majors to work as interviewers, trainers or recruiters. Any sort of job that involves extensive human contact and interaction - sales, account management, counseling jobs that don't require special licensure, probation and parole workers - all of these professions have psychology graduates in their ranks.

Urban and regional planners engage in research, but for very specific purposes with clear objectives in mind. They work with statistics, economic data and demographics in order to produce recommendations on development questions or plans for a given geographic or political entity.

Political scientists who do graduate work usually teach. Students with a baccalaureate in political science might find a job opportunity within a municipal, county or state agency handling constituent work or dealing with active civic organizations. Some cut their teeth doing campaign work and eventually become political consultants.

Archaeologists who work for the government often survey proposed development sites to ascertain what, if any evidence may be found there that relates to historical use of the property. Many anthropologists have found a niche working with businesses that have product development divisions and that want information on how a product may be perceived and used by the public based cultural, physical or sociological factors. Geographers are generally employed by governments for the purpose of studying the physical impact of proposed development on a piece of real estate.

Graduates with a degree in economics have a lot of options, both in business and in government. Budget development is a major government function that occurs on an annual basis. Government agencies also look at the economic impact of many things, from proposed legislation to the closure of military bases to the economic model of a foreign nation. At the local level, city or county administrators employ economic professionals to manage finances and revenue. The same is true of businesses, where you may find a former economics student working as a risk manager, financial officer or budget analyst.

If you are interested in studying one of the social sciences you should consider speaking with a career counselor at your (potential) school. Many colleges today have placement offices and career professionals who work in them. With persistence, you should be able to find a job opportunity that will allow you to utilize your education in the social sciences.

Bob Hartzell writes about careers for On the website you'll find comprehensive resources for social science degrees as well as information on educational opportunities for hundreds of other professions.

Homeschool science education is fun! It is more fun when you can use things found around the house to demonstrate some naturally occurring phenomena such as air pressure. Flying a toy plane is every child's dream, and if it is combined with education, it can promote better understanding.

Before we go into the fun learning activities that you could co-ordinate with a homeschool science program, let me teach you some principles on which airplanes fly. There are some forces working on an airplane as it flies. They are the forces of thrust and drag and lift and gravity. Thrust moves the airplane forward, and is provided by the jet engine and the propeller. Drag is a force of resistance that works in the opposite direction of thrust and slows down the airplane. Lift works in the upward direction and is produced by the wings. Gravity works in a direction opposite to the lift and pulls the plane down due to its weight. The right balance between these four forces keeps the plane flying. Airplanes are shaped in such a way so as to minimize drag caused by air pressure, in order to allow them to glide smoothly. When air hits a moving object having a smaller area, it does not cause much resistance since there is less air pressure working on that object. On the other hand, when air hits a moving object with a larger area, it causes resistance as there is a higher pressure working on that object. This is why airplanes are aerodynamically designed with cone-shaped noses so that the air pressure on the airplane body is reduced. This reduces drag and allows them to glide effortlessly through the air. As an airplane moves with great speed on the runway, the wings are tilted upwards, increasing the air pressure on them. Therefore the airplane is lifted off the runway and rises higher. The angle of the wings determines how high the airplane will lift. In the same way, air pressure is used to maneuver the plane using the tail rudder. You can blend the following fun activity with your homeschool science program. Buy a balsa wood toy airplane at your local store or drug store. As we assemble the airplane, we will experiment how it flies as we add each part. To begin with, fly only the airplane body without the fins or wings. You will find that it is no better than a shoe flung in the air. The thrust is of no use, as it cannot make the right use of air pressure to fly. Now attach only the large wing and fly the airplane. Your plane will seem to lift but then somersaults or plummets to the ground.

Next attach the horizontal stabilizer tail and fly it with a curve. You will notice that the somersaults have stopped but there is a zigzag movement. Attach the vertical tail or rudder and now check out your toy airplane. This time you will notice a successful flying spell without any fishtail movements. Here's something for you to figure out on your own. Fly the airplane without the metal nose clip and see what happens. What is the purpose of this metal clip? If you enjoyed your airplane lesson and experiment, let me tell you that I have loads of similar activities to enhance your homeschool science learning.To get great science experiments and activities visit the free "Homeschool Parent's Guide to Teaching Science" at the link below.

A great free resource for really cool science activities and experiments is to download a copy of the Homeschool Science Experiment Guide.

Another good homeschool resource for science ideas, experiments and activities, is the homeschool science blog (just click on the "Blog" link). Definitely worth bookmarking.

Good luck!

About the Author Aurora Lipper has been teaching science to kids for over 10 years. She is also a mechanical engineer, university instructor, pilot, astronomer, a real live rocket scientist (You should see the lab in her basement!) and a mom. She has inspired thousands of kids with the fun and magic of science.

Hermosa Beach, CA โ€" Troy State University has chosen ParaComp's patented Smart Scienceโ„ข education system to provide laboratory experience to its distance learning students around the world. The Troy State University Fort Benning campus includes soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq among its students. During each of its two-month terms, 150 students enroll in the school's distance learning science courses. Troy State University has four campuses in the state of Alabama and over fifty locations world-wide. Until now, no satisfactory online method of providing lab experience was available.

After an online live demonstration of the capabilities of Smart Scienceโ„ข education and reviewing several of its 75 laboratories, the Troy State University science faculty recommended using Smart Scienceโ„ข labs for distance learning courses. Dr. Judy McCarley, Associate Director for Academics Fort Benning Campus, approved the decision, and the first labs will be delivered this month.

Smart Scienceโ„ข labs will be used in courses teaching earth science, chemistry and biology.

According to Dr. Harry Keller, President of ParaComp, Inc., Smart Science labs fit perfectly with the demands of distance learning. He said, โ€œThe ability to do real science on a remote computer provides a key ingredient for remote science learning. We're looking forward to expanding the number of courses and the number of labs used by each course. Our modular software allows each professor to tailor the learning experience to specific classes.โ€

The science areas covered by Smart Scienceโ„ข labs include data analysis, periodic motion, waves, electricity, speed and acceleration, statics, biology, heat, sound, earth science and chemistry.

Troy State professors using the system include Virginia June Tieken, Gerald Marano and Dennis Mitchell. Each professor has selected specific Smart Scienceโ„ข labs to enrich course curricula. Students log in to ParaComp's server to reach accounts set up for each class. A Java applet provides the display and interaction required to make the lab experience come alive for each student.

Because students can do labs on their own schedule, redo any experiment repeatedly and require only an online computer to run the labs, the Troy State faculty expect this new service to work well with students who are far from Fort Benning, Georgia and other Troy State University campuses.

ParaComp's Smart Scienceโ„ข labs use real experiments to teach students to observe phenomena, collect data, and select and test hypotheses as they work to identify the principles involved. Because they are delivered in volume, the cost for an experiment can be as low as pennies for each student.

For more information on Smart Science, see

The Smart Scienceโ„ข backgrounder is at

ParaComp's web site is at

Troy State's web site is at The web site for the Fort Benning campus is at

(Chicago - September 6, 2005) Argosy University announced today that it will assist students from universities in New Orleans, southern Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama universities, which were closed for the foreseeable future due to the devastation caused by Hurricane "Katrina."

Argosy University will be available both on campus and online courses that would allow dislocated students to progress in their academic careers during this semester of disruption. University students forced to close as a result of Hurricane Katrina may register at any one of 13 Argosy University campuses across the country on course for the space may have for the fall terms.

Argosy University will waive training for dislocated students who have already registered and paid for training at home institutions for the fall 2005 semester. If dislocated students have not yet paid their studies at home institution, they will be judged less than the current published studies and fees at home institution, or Argosy University, has published studies and fees, as defined in the Argosy University campus president.

"Argosy University operates today, providing educational assistance to students the impact of Hurricane Katrina," said Dr. Gregory O'Brien, president of Argosy University. "Argosy University for the welfare of these students, and this initiative is our way to go with the sympathy and goodwill for the victims . We promise to do everything we can to assist students in the area of the Gulf Coast to continue their education and continue to be in their lives. "

According to the American Council on Education, more than 30 colleges and universities in the region of the Gulf Coast were severely damaged by the hurricane, and perhaps 100,000 students who were expelled from their schools.

Argosy University offers doctoral, masters, and a bachelor's degree in psychology programs, counseling, education, business, information technology and organizational leadership.Doctoral degree programs in clinical psychology (accredited by the American Psychological Association), available in several Argosy University campuses. Argosy University will assist dislocated Ph.D. and Psy.D. students on an individual basis. Choose associate degree programs in several fields of medical sciences are available from the University Argosy / Twin Cities, located in Eagan, MN.

Argosy University has campuses in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Honolulu, Orange County (Santa Ana, California), Phoenix, San Francisco, Bay Area (Port Richmond, Calif.), Sarasota, Schaumburg (IL), Seattle, Tampa , twin cities (Eagan, MN), and in Washington, DC (Arlington, VA).

Students seeking information about Argosy University initiatives can visit the website of the University ( or by calling the National reception at 1-800-377-0617.

With 13 campuses nationwide, Argosy University ( offers undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate degrees in business disciplines, education, medicine, and psychology and behavioral sciences. Argosy University is accredited by Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association (NCA) (30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400, Chicago, IL 60602, 1.312.263.0456, The parent company of Argosy University, Education Management Corporation (, is one of the largest providers of private higher education in North America, based on the student's admission and revenue. Students receiving more than 66,000 as of fall 2004. EDMC has 71 primary campus locations in 24 states and two Canadian provinces. EDMC education institutions to offer a wide range of academic programs concentrated in the media, art, design, fashion, culinary arts, behavioral sciences, health sciences, education, information technology, legal studies and business fields, culminating in the conclusion of an associate in the doctoral degree. EDMC has provided career-oriented education for over 40 years.

We at CertMagic are dedicated to helping our clients get the best IT preparation for their upcoming certification in minimum time. Our certmagic experience of 3 years in this business has helped us develop foolproof study strategies and material for IT certification preparation.Read Navid Profile

We at CertMagic are dedicated to helping our clients get the best IT preparation for their upcoming certification in minimum time. Our certmagicexperience of 3 years in this business has helped us develop foolproof study strategies and material for IT certification preparation. We have catered to more than 200,000 people from all over the world. In the last 3 months alone, CertMagic had over 4100 orders from 104 countries. Undoubtedly, CertMagic has become the market leader in the field of IT Certification preparation with an impressive, unparalleled success rate of 99%.

The National Science Foundation is an independent government agency in the United States. The National Science Foundation is responsible for providing support to basic science research, which is primarily accomplished through research funding.

The National Science Foundation mostly provides research funding in the form of grants. These grants are most often given in the form of individual grants to graduate students and professors. In fact, with an annual budget of approximately $5.5 billion, the National Science Foundation provides about 20% of federally supported funding for basic research to America's universities and colleges.

Under the leadership of its director, Dr. Arden L. Bement, Jr., the National Science Board meets six times per year to determine the policies of the National Science Foundation. The National Science Board consists of 24 members, all of which are appointed by the President of the United States to 6 year terms.

History of the National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation was originally established as the result of the 1950 National Science Foundation Act. The mission of the National Science Foundation, as stated within this act, was "To promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense."

The National Science Foundation has competed with defense research agencies, such as the Office of Naval Research, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, for funding. This battle for funding has led many science historians to claim that the National Science Foundation is an "inept compromise" between visions within the federal government in regards to the scope and purpose of the foundation.

Programs of the National Science Foundation

Fields within the National Science Foundation include: astronomy, physics, behavioral science, biology, chemistry, and computer science. Economic science, social sciences, science education, engineering, environmental science and education, polar research, geoscience, mathematics, and statistics are also fields covered by the National Science Foundation.

In addition to working within its regular fields, the National Science Foundation promotes a variety of special programs. These programs are sometimes put into place in order to increase the participation of under-represented minorities in the sciences. The Research Experience for Undergraduates program, for example, targets minorities and women. This program provides grants to institutions in order to assist them in providing opportunities for summer research to undergraduate students.

In addition, the GK-12 Crosscutting Program was established by the National Science Foundation to provide universities with money to encourage graduate students to interact with k-12 students. The goal of this program is to increase science retention in children at an early age.

The National Science Foundation also funds projects on a national scale. One such project is the National Science Digital Library. Also, the National Science Foundation helps pay for the establishment of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers that are located in some research universities.

Space exploration and the National Science Foundation

At times, there is conflict between the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This is because both agencies strive to increase knowledge regarding the universe, space, and the human body. Neither, however, wants to pay more than its fair share for this research. Furthermore, clear guidelines concerning which agency is responsible for which aspects of the fields have not been established.

Currently, the two agencies have developed a truce of sorts. Under the unofficially structured guidelines, NASA is responsible for paying form space based operations. These include projects such as Chandra, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The National Science Foundation, on the other hand, funds ground based operations. These include the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, and Kitt Peak.

Costa Rica boasts a one of the highest literacy rates worldwide with 96% of its natives being educated at least through 11th grade. That's undoubtedly thanks to the mandatory schooling for children. The Costa Rica government provides their education free of charge. The children are educated in many of the areas that are studied in Europe and North America—math, science, history, etc.—and are also taught English as their second language while continuing to master their native Spanish linguistics.

One main difference in the Costa Rican educational system is that schooling ends at 11th grade in most schools. However, there are select educational institutions that do teach courses through the 12th grade. Those that decide to continue with their education in Costa Rica have the option to pursue higher education at one of the local universities or elsewhere in the world.

The four main public universities in Costa Rica are la Universidad de Costa Rica, el Instituto de Tecnologico de Costa Rica, la Universidad Nacional Estatal a Distancia and la Universidad Nacional Autonoma. Each of the Costa Rica universities is designed to focus on specialized areas. Here's a more detailed description of each facility:

La Universidad de Costa Rica
La Universidad de Costa Rica, the largest higher education institution in the nation, is located on a vast and scenic piece of Costa Rica real estate in San Jose. It caters to approximately 35,000 students each year and has a diverse course offering. Students can focus their studies in fine arts, the sciences, social science, education, engineering, medicine and more. Graduate courses are also available.

Universidad Nacional Autonoma
La Universidad Nacional Autonoma Costa Rica is located in the Heredia province of the nation. Some of the undergraduate coursework specializations include language, finance, plus Cultural Identity, Art & Technology. Postgraduate programs are also available.

Instituto de Tecnologico de Costa Rica
El Instituto de Tecnologico de Costa Rica is a smaller institution. It is comprised of three regional campuses, each of which is situated on smaller plots of Costa Rica real estate. Still, each of the facilities has classrooms and well as extensive research laboratories for student use. The curricula at el Instituto de Tecnologico de Costa Rica is focused primarily on engineering specialties (biological, architectural, industrial design, etc.) but does offer some course work in other areas as well as graduate programs.

Universidad Nacional Estatal a Distancia (UNED)
La Universidad Nacional Estatal a Distancia is primarily a correspondence learning university. Undergraduate courses at UNED include work in Education, Natural Sciences, Administration, and Social Sciences / Humanities. The school also offers about two-dozen masters / doctorate programs. Students who live in rural areas populate this school most often.

In addition to the four public universities, there are also a number of private higher learning institutions throughout the country that students can attend. The universities vary in purpose and thus the campuses are built on varying sizes of Costa Rica real estate. Some of the more notable private institutions include la Universidad Catoดlica de Costa Rica, Universidad Autoดnoma de Centroameดrica, Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas, and the United Nations University for Peace.

by David B Lovendahl, Developing Paradise TM

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